The world has been in the grips of a global health pandemic for almost two years. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the massive inequalities that exist within national spending priorities, in which military security has been prioritised over human needs and security, including health and and well-being, for decades. The nuclear-armed states are spending billions of dollars to "upgrade" their nuclear weapons and delivery systems—in direct contradiction to their legal obligations for nuclear disarmament.
In the context of the pandemic, this updated study explores the ongoing and planned nuclear weapon modernisation programmes in China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Non-governmental researchers and analysts provide information on each country’s modernisation programmes, plans, and budgets.